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Mobile robots are software-controlled machines using sensors and other technology to detect and navigate their environment. Mobility robots operate using a mix of artificial intelligence (AI) and technical elements (legs, chassis, tracks).

Mobile robot types and classifications

Mobile robots can be categorized in two ways, depending on the environment in which they operate and the movement device.

Examples of mobile robots operating in different environments are:

- polar robots, designed to move around on the icy, uneven ground;

- aerial robots, also called drones or drones;

- ground or domestic robots, also called crewless ground vehicles, which move around on the floor or indoors;

- underwater robots, or autonomous underwater vehicles that are capable of navigating and navigating through water on their own;

- portable mobile robots for transporting materials, tools, and equipment around a work environment.

Mobile robots can be classified by the device for movement:

- legs (similar to human or animal legs);

- tracks;

- wheels.

Also, two types of mobile robots exist: autonomous and non-autonomous, or controlled.

Managed mobile robots need instructions or a navigation system to move around. Autonomous mobile robots can move and analyze the situation around them without any external instructions.

The distinction separating AMRs from autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs) is that AMRs can be pretty independent. AGVs usually need external controls, like magnetic tapes, cables, or floor-mounted sensors, creating an inflexible setup that is both road and difficult to adjust to suit the needs. AMRs aims to overcome these obstacles because they do not need external control.

Functional features of a mobile robot

Every mobile robot uses a variety of elements to optimize its performance for specific tasks or goals. But the most commonly used industrial mobile robot systems today must have several essential features that must be present. These features include the following:

- wireless data exchange;

- integrated safety features;

- software for fleet simulation;

- software for fleet management;

- integration with company dispatch software.

 Applications and functionality of mobile robots

The primary functionalities of a mobile robot involve the capacity to travel and investigate, carry payloads or income-generating cargo, and accomplish complex missions using an Integrated system, such as robotic arms. 

Although mobile robots are widely used industrially, primarily in warehouse and distribution centers, their functionality can also be used in firefighting, medicine, security, and personal needs. Ocean exploration and space navigation are also among the most common applications of mobile robots.

Currently, mobile robots are used in areas such as nuclear power plants. Factors such as high radiation are present, making the area excessively dangerous for inspection and control by humans. Meanwhile, modern robotics developers are developing robots that can tolerate high radiation levels without damaging their electronic circuits.

Other applications for mobile robots include:

- surveying areas for mines;

- Repairing marine vessels;

- robotic dogs or exoskeletons for transporting heavy objects for the military;

- painting cars or other objects;

- robotic arms to assist surgeons in performing operations;

- making automatic prostheses that mimic the body's natural workings, 

- patrolling and monitoring applications, such as monitoring temperature and other environmental conditions.

At present, robots are used both for industrial and consumer purposes. Their use grows with artificial intelligence, sensors, motors, and actuators that recognize and move through the environment. Although robots have been around for decades, they become increasingly popular as technology improves.


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